MACNIT: The logged primary forest at the study site lies within a severely fragmented matrix of forest that runs between ridges and streams (e.g. Matanda Sappa). The forested ridge represented within the study ste was partly bordered by a cleared slope where a few dead trees remained standing and a small rice paddy had been established; th eformer were excavated by the coleto, Sarcops calvus and the Polillo Greater Flameback, Chrysocolaptes lucidus grandis. Apitong had been logged within the forest.