Table 2. Uses of trees and plants in the Polillo Islands

VH= very hard, H= hard, M= Medium, S= soft, Costs are given in Pesos per board foot.

Local Name (used on Polillo) Use Density Growth Rate Cost (P/ bft) comments Common Name Scientific name Family
Dao Houses, furniture, stairs, floors H Slow 20-25

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Dao Dracontomelon dao ANAC.
Amogis/ Amagis Houses - - - - Amugis Koordersiodendron pinnatum ANAC.
Malamanga/ Mangachapoi/ Mangachapoy/ Mangaseniora/ Mangachinuro/ Pahotan Houses H - - - Pahutan/ Paho / Malapaho Mangifera altissima/ Mangifera monandra ANAC.
Ilang Ilang matches, chopsticks, splints, shoes, fragrant flowers S - - flowers sold widely Ilang-Ilang Cananga odorata ANNON.
Lanutan / Lanutan dilaw Houses - - - - Lanutan/ Lanutan-dilau/ Lapnisan Mitrephora lanotan/ Polyalthia flava/ Polyalthia oblongifolia ANNON.
Ilang Ilang Gubat / Lanutan puti Houses - - - - Lanutan-puti/ Lanutan-laparan Polyalthia suberosa/ Enicosanthum grandifolium ANNON.
Dita / Batino furniture, boxes, matches, splints, shoes S Fast - cheap Batino/ Malabatino Alstonia macrophylla/ Paralstonia clusiacea APOCYN.
Laniti Houses - - - - Laneteng-gubat Kibatalia gitingensis APOCYN.
Milipili Not for houses, firewood, construction - - - Easily destroyed by termites Pagsahingin/ Milipili Canarium asperum/ Canarium hirsutum BURS.
Pilaway gubat Edible fruit & nuts, boats* - - - Easily destroyed by termites Piling-liitan Canarium luzonicum BURS.
Pilaway / Pili Edible fruit & nuts - - - Easily destroyed by termites Pili Canarium ovatum BURS.
Bilukaw Houses, edible fruit H - - - Binukau/ Taklang-anak Garcinia binucao/ Garcinia dulcis CLUS.
Talisay gubat Houses - - - - Talisai-gubat Terminalia foetidissima COMBR.
Kalumpit Houses - - - - Kalumpit Terminalia microcarpa COMBR.
Katmon Houses, furniture, floors, edible fruit - Slow 15-16 Beautiful black & white wood Katmon/ Katmon-kalabau Dillenia philippinensis/ Dillenia reifferscheidtia DILL.
Palosapis Houses, big boats H - - - Dagang/ Palosapis Anisoptera aurea/ Anisoptera thurifera ssp. thurifera DIPT.
Apitong / Apitong Anahowin / Apitong Bayabasing Houses, construction H/M Slow 8 Maximum of 15 pesos Hairy-leafed Apitong/ Panau/ Apitong Dipterocarpus alatus/ Dipterocarpus gracilis/ Dipterocarpus grandiflorus DIPT.
Apitong Hagakhak Houses, construction H/M Slow 8 Maximum of 15 pesos Broad-winged Apitong/ Round-leafed Apitong Dipterocarpus kunstleri/ Dipterocarpus orbicularis DIPT.
Dalingdingan Houses, beams H/M - - - Yakal-kaliot Hopea malibato DIPT.
White Lauan / Bagtikan Houses H/M - - - Bagtikan Parashorea malaanonan DIPT.
Apnit (white lauan) Houses H/M - - - White Lauan Shorea contorta DIPT.
Red Lauan / Red Lauan Hagakhak/ Red Lauan Tiaong / Red Lauan Langisan houses, boats H/M - 15-20 not very heavy Almon/ Red Lauan/ Tiaong Shorea almon/ Shorea negrosensis/ Shorea ovata DIPT.
Yakal/ Tugawy Houses, construction, not boats VH Slow 20 expensive Yakal/ Guijo Shorea astylosa/ Shorea guiso DIPT.
Pura/ Myapis Houses H/M - - - Mayapis Shorea palosapis DIPT.
Tangili Houses H/M - - - Tangile Shorea polysperma DIPT.
Yakal Blanco Posts/ beams in houses H Slow 20 - Thick-leafed Narig Vatica pachyphylla DIPT.
Kamagung Floors, furniture, too heavy for boats, edible fruit - - - black and white wood becomes very shiny with wax Kamagong Diospyros discolor EBEN.
Malatubig Houses, posts H Slow 20 not eaten by termites Tabian Elaeocarpus monocera ELEA.
Amlang furniture, boxes, matches, splints, shoes S Fast 8-9 cheap, for use inside not out, lasts >10 years if no termite attacks Gubas Endospermum peltatum EUPH.
Takipasin Fire wood, nipa huts, leaves used in cooking - - - very poor quality wood Hamindang Macaranga bicolor EUPH.
Buta-Buta S Fast - - Binungang-ahas Macaranga cuernosensis EUPH.
Minounga S Fast - - Binunga Macaranga tanaris EUPH.
Gapas Gapas S Fast - - Hinlaumo Mallotus mollissimus EUPH.
Ipil (Ipil-ipil) Houses - - - - Ipil Intsia bijuga FABAC.
Narra Houses, furniture, very good carving H Slow 20-25 - Prickly Narra/ Narra Pterocarpus indicus forma echinatus/ Pterocarpus indicus forma indicus FABAC.
Laniti puti Houses - - - - Bitongol Flacourtia rukam FLAC.
Boutong-manok Edible fruit if cooked - - - - Bago Gnetum gnemon var. gnemn GNET.
Igang / Tapat Tapat / Lima Lima Houses, posts VH Slow 18 - Dangula / Sasalit/ Igang Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum/ Syzygium garciae LAMIA./ MYRT.
Kamaga-ay Houses, posts H Slow 20 - Kamigai Cryptocarya ilocana LAUR.
Arahan Houses H Slow 20 - Arahan/ Ulas Litsea albayana/ Guioa myriadenia LAUR./ SAPIND.
Marang puti boats, houses S Fast - - Marang-laparan/ Sablot-linis Litsea ampla/ Litsea baractanensis LAUR.
Marang Houses, big boats S Fast - - Sablot/ Puso-puso Litsea glutinosa/ Neolitsea vidalii LAUR.
Marang bitikolin Houses, boats, posts - - - - Batikuling Litsea leytensis LAUR.
Marang dilaw / Marang aso boats, houses S Fast - - Marang Litsea perrottetii LAUR.
Putat Gubat Houses H - - - Putat Barringtonia racemosa LECYTH.
Malobo / Balobo Houses, edible fruit if cooked H - - - Balobo Diplodiscus paniculatus MALV.
Tan-ag S Fast - - Tan-ag Kleinhovia hospita MALV.
Kiling/ Kamuling/ Kamoling Houses, edible fruit M - - - Kamuling Microcos stylocarpa MALV.
Banilad S Fast - - Banilad Sterculia comosa MALV.
Malaruhat na pula / Malasaging Houses H - - - Malasaging Aglaia edulis MELIAC.
Malasantol/ Santol Houses, edible fruit H - - cultivated Santol Sandoricum koetjape MELIAC.
Antipolo houses, boats* S Fast 20 - Antipolo Artocarpus blancoi MORAC.
Kamansai (Breadfruit) Sweet edible fruit S Fast - - Rimas Artocarpus communis MORAC.
Nangka (Jackfruit) Sweet edible fruit S Fast - Eaten raw, cooked in savory dish, made into jams Nangka Artocarpus heterophylla MORAC.
Antipolo Gumihan Sweet edible fruit S Fast - - Gumihan Artocarpus sericicarpus MORAC.
Opling-gubat / Malaopli - S Fast - - Upling-gubat Ficus ampelas var. ampelas MORAC.
Opling Leaves used for cleaning S Fast - - Is-is Ficus ulmifolia MORAC.
Tibig (small fruit) S Fast - - Malatibig Ficus congesta var. congesta MORAC.
Ayimit Some types of fruit edible S Fast - wood is not used Hagimit Ficus minahassae MORAC.
Tibig (large fruit) - S Fast - - Tibig/ Dolalog Ficus nota/ Ficus variegata var. sycomoroides MORAC.
Tangisang-bayawak Boxes, egg boxes, etc, not construction S Fast - Light Tangisang-bayawak/ Malahauili Ficus variegata/ Ficus septica var. salicifolia MORAC.
Saging Edible fruit (various types, cooked or raw) & heart (cooked), leaves used to package food & in handicrafts S Fast - - Saging-matsing Musa acuminata MUSA.
Abaca Edible fruit (various types, cooked or raw) & heart (cooked), leaves used to package food & in handicrafts S Fast - - Abaca Musa textilis MUSA.
Botuhan Edible fruit (various types, cooked or raw) & heart (cooked), leaves used to package food & in handicrafts S Fast - - - Musa MUSA.
Duguan puti / pula Houses H - - - Tambalau/ Tanghas/ Duguan Knema glomerata/ Myristica elliptica var. simiarum/ Myristica philippinensis MYRIST.
Malaruhat/ Malaruhat puti Houses H - - - Malaruhat/ Malaruhat-puti Cleistocalyx operculatus/ Syzygium bordenii MYRT.
Liputin gubat/ Lipoti Houses, construction H - - - Lipoteng-gubat/ Malatampui Syzygium curtiflorum/ Syzygium xanthophyllum MYRT.
Makaasim Houses, posts H - - - Makaasim Syzygium nitidium MYRT.
Malabayabas Houses, posts H Slow 20 not eaten by termites Malabayabas Tristanopsis decorticata MYRT.
Bunga (Betelnut palm) beetlenut for chewing, floor of nipa huts - - - nut very popular, chewed with tobacco and lime Bunga Areca cathecu PALM.
Pugahan construction (strips), nipa hut flooring, Edible heart - - - - Pugahan/ Takipan Caryota cumingii/ Caryota rumphiana var. philippinensis PALM.
Niyog (niyogan) Copra, edible fruit, boiled leaves used to decrease blood pressure - - - - Niog (Coconut)* Cocus nucifera PALM.
Anahau/ anahaw construction (strips), axe handles, leaves for roofing, edible heart. - Fast - - Anahau Livistonia rotundifolia var. luzonensis PALM.
Anibong construction (strips), edible heart - Fast - remove spines before use in construction like other palms Anibong-liitan/ Anibong Oncosperma gracilipes/ Oncosperma tigillaria PALM.
Tokyong construction (strips), flooring of nipa huts etc, edible heart - - - - Sarauag Pinanga insignis PALM.
banga construction (strips) - - - poisonous heart - - PALM.
Alas-as baskets, bags, mats & handicrafts - - - - Alas-as Pandanus luzonensis PANDAN.
Kalagimay baskets, bags, mats & handicrafts - - - - Karagumoi Pandanus simplex PANDAN.
Balutan-ginto/ balotanginto Houses H - - - Dalisai Taingang-babui Prunus clementis/ Gonocaryum calleryanum ROSAC./ ICAC.
Panabang Houses H - - - Kubili Cubilia cubili SAPIND.
Alupag / Magluson/ Halupag Houses, posts VH Slow 20 - Alupag-amo Litchi chinensis ssp. Philippinensis SAPIND.
Bulala Houses, construction, delicious wild rambutan H Slow 20 - Kapulasan Nephelium lappaceum var. pallens SAPIND.
Dulitan pasak / Dulitan Houses, big boats H - - - Alakaak-tilos/ Malakmalak-bundok Palaquium elliptilimbum/ Palaquium montanum SAPOT.
Dulitan dilau Houses, big boats H - - - Dulitan Palaquium merrillii SAPOT.
Dulitan puti Houses, big boats H - - - Duklitan Planchonella nitida SAPOT.
Malaetmo/ malaitmo - H - - - Magabuyo Celtis luzonica ULM.
Rattan Edible heart - good for diabetes, handicrafts - - - rattan - - -
limoran Edible heart - good for diabetes, handicrafts, edible fruits - - - rattan - - -
Matinik Use in houses - - - bamboo - - -
Kawayan Use in houses, construction - - - bamboo - - -
Tayuwanak Use in houses - - - bamboo - - -
Bayug Use in houses - - - bamboo - - -
Boho Use in houses, walls - - - very tall, thin bamboo - - -
Bagin bark crushed and used as shampoo - - - generic term for vine - - -
Kakao/ malacacao medicinal drink using the boiled root - - - - - - -
Gisak Posts - - - - - - -
Ispada ispada Walls, bark used as medicine for stomach aches - - - - - - -
Kaping gubat Houses - - - - - - -
Balibago - S - - - - - -
Mangostin Edible fruit S - - - - - -
Mangostin gubat Posts H - - - - - -
Kalamansi Small citrus fruit - - - - - - -
Maolawin Railsleepers VH - 20 not eaten by termites - - -
Mamaho/ Amamaho - H - - - - - -
Ibano furniture, wood tiles - - 20-25 black and shiny - - -
Acli Floor, beams - - - - - - -
bansalagin Houses VH Slow 20 not eaten by termites - - -
gisgis Houses H - - - - - -
     
Houses in Salapakan showing roofs made from Anahaw leaves

1. The 'kasko' is made from Antipolo, Marang or red or white lawaan.

2. The main body of the boat is made from red lawaan, pilaway or marang or plywood if the boat is very small.

3. The 'ligasoon' can be made from any type of hard wood.

 

1. The balasts are made from bamboo

2. The cross section from either hard bamboo or anahaw

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